Falling in Old Age in Samsun: 2010-2015
Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate cases over the age of 65 who are admitted for falling and to lead the way for the measures to be taken to minimize the harm.
Materials and Methods: 489 patients at and over the age of 65 who were admitted to Ondokuz Mayıs University Health Application and Research Center due to falling between the dates of 01.08.2010 and 31.07.2015 were included in the study.
Forensic files and hospital automation system data of the cases were analyzed and their genders, ages, time of admission, type of fall, wound areas, fractured bones, presence of comorbid disease, the department in which they were treated and their treatment status were examined retrospectively. The data obtained from this cross- sectional study were assessed with SPSS 15.0 program.
Results: 230 (47,0%) of the cases were men, while 259 (53,0%) were women. The cases were mostly admitted in July (12.3%), on Sundays (15.7%) and between 16.00 and 23.59 (46.6%). The most frequent place of fall was inside the house (43,3%). Internal organ injury was seen in 16,4% of the patients while bone fracture was seen in 53,2%. Most frequently fractured bone was the femur (41,5%).
Conclusion: Injuries associated with falling due to the increase in old population creates an important social problem. Falling is not an inevitable result of old age. Preventing falls in old age will decrease the dependency about daily life activities, increase life quality and decrease health care costs.
2. Holtzer R, Friedman R, Lipton RB, Katz M, Xue W, Verghese J. The relationship between specific cognitive functions and falls in aging. Neuropsychology. 2007; 21(5): 540-8. doi: 10.1037/0894-4188.8.131.520
3. Aoyagi K, Ross PD, Davis Jw, Wasnich RD, Hayashi T, Takemoto T. Falls among community-dwelling elderly in Japan. J Bone Miner Res 1998; 13: 1468-74. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.19184.108.40.2068
4. Bueno-Cavanillas A, Padilla-Ruiz F, Jimenez-Moleon JJ, Peİnado-Monso CA, Galvez-Vargas R. Risk factors in falls among the elderly acoording to extrinsic and intrinsic precipitating causes. Eur J Epidemiol 2000; 16: 849-59.
5. Graafmans WC, Ooms ME, Hofstee HM, Bezemer PD, Bouter LM. Lips P. Falls in the elderly: A prospective study of risk factors and risk profiles. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143: 1129-36.
6. Lipsitz LA, Jonsson PV, Kelley MM, Koestner JS. Causes and correlates of recurrent falls in ambulatory frail elderly. J Gerontol 1991; 46: 114-22.
7. Robbins AS, Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR, Schulman BL, Osterweil D, Fine G. Predictors of falls among elderly people. Results of two population-based studies. Arch Intern Med 1989; 149: 1628-33.
8. Ryynanen OP, Kivela SL, Honkanen R, Lappala P. Saano V. Medications and chronic diseases as risk factors for falling injuries in the elderly. Scand J Soc Med 1993; 21: 264-71.
9. Tinetti ME, Williams TF, Mayewski R. Fail risk index for elderly patients based on number of chronic disabilities. Am J Med 1986; 80: 429-34.
10. Karataş GK, Maral I. Ankara- Gölbaşı ilçesinde geriatrik popülasyonda 6 aylık dönemde düşme sıklığı ve düşme için risk faktörleri. Turkish Journal of Geriatrics 2001; 4 (4): 152-8.
11. Masud T, Morris RO. Epidemiology of falls. Age Ageing. 2001; 30: 3-7.
12. Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR. Falls and their prevention in elderly people: what does the evidence show? Med Clin North Am. 2006; 90: 807-24. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2006.05.013
13. Tinetti ME, Doucette J, Claus E, Marottoli RA. Risk factors for serious injury during falls by older persons in the community. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995; 43: 1214-21.
14. Sattin RW, Huber DAL, DeVito CA, Rodriquez JE, Ros A, Bacchelli S, et al. The incidence of fall injury events among the elderly in a defined population. Am J Epidemiol. 1990; 131: 1028-37.
15. Kiel DP, O'Sullivan P, Teno JM, Mor V. Health care utilization and functional status in the aged following a fall. Med Care. 1991; 29(3): 221-8.
16. Suzuki M, Ohyama N, Yamada K, Kanamori M. The Relationship Between Fear of Falling, Activities of Daily Living and Quality of Life Among Elderly Individuals. Nursing and Health Sciences 2002; 4(4): 155-61.
17. World Health Organization. WHO global report on falls prevention in older age, 2007. World Health Organization, 1-7.
18. Aktaş B. Doktora Tezi; “Yaşlı Bireylerde Düşmeleri Önlemeye Yönelik Rehber Geliştirme ve Rehber Doğrultusunda Verilen Eğitimin Düşmeye Etkisi” Atatürk Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Tez Yöneticisi; Prof. Dr. Behice Erci Erzurum 2012.
19. Işık A, Cankurtaran M, Doruk H, Mas MR. Geriatrik Olgularda Düşmelerin Değerlendirilmesi. Turkish Journal of Geriatrics 2006; 9 (1): 45-50.
20. Todd C, Skelton D. What are The Main Risk Factors for Falls Among Older People and What are the Most Effective Interventions to Prevent These Falls? 2004 Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe (Health Evidence Network report; http://www.euro.who.int/document/E82552.pdf) , erişim tarihi: 14 Aralık 2015.
21. Hawk C, Hyland JK, Rupert R, Colonvega M, Hall S. Assessment of Balance and Risk for Falls in a Sample of Community-Dwelling Adults Aged 65 and Older. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2006; 14: 3. doi: 10.1186/1746-1340-14-3
22. Campbell AJ. Spears CiF, Borrie MJ. Examinatîon by logistic rEgression modelling of the variables which erease the relative risk of elderly women falling compared to elderly men. J Clin Epidemiol 1990; 44: 1415-20.
23. Downton JH, Andrews K. Prevalence, characteristics and factors associated with falls among the elderly living at home. Aging 1991; 3: 219-28.
24. Tinetti M, Speechley M. Prevention of Falls Among the Elderly. The New England Journal of Medicine 1989; 320(16): 1055-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198904203201606
25. Lök N. Yüksek Lisans Tezi; “Yaşlılarda Düşmelere Sebep Olan Ev İçi Çevresel Risk Faktörleri ve Düşme ile İlişkisi” Selçuk Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Tez Yöneticisi: Doç.Dr.Belgin Akın Konya- 2010.
26. Cassels C. Falls in the Elderly: a Major Cause of TBI Death, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Injury Journal and Safety Research 2008; 39: 269-72.
27. Zararsız İ, Kaya E, Savaş N, Meydan S, Davran R, Tutanç M, ve ark. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Tayfur Ata Sökmen Tıp Fakültesi Acil Servise Kırık Nedeniyle Başvuran Hastalarda Kırık Dağılımı ve Sıklığı, F.Ü.Sağ. Bil.Tıp Derg. 2009; 23(3): 155-8.
28. Taviloğlu K, Aydın A, Çuhalı BD, Demiralp T, Güloğlu R, Ertekin C. Olgularımızın birinci derece travma merkezine sevk edilme kriterlerine uygunluğunun değerlendirilmesi. Ulusal Travma Dergisi 2001; 7: 146-50.
29. Ritsema TS, Kelen GD, Pronovost PJ, Pham JC. The national trend in quality of emergency department pain management for long bone fractures. Acad Emerg Med 2007; 14: 163-9. doi: 10.1197/j.aem.2006.08.015
30. Hadjidakis DJ, Kokkinakis EP, Sfakianakis ME, Raptis SA. Bone density patterns after normal and premature menopause. Maturitas 2003; 44: 279-86.
31. Koç Z. Hastaneye Yatan 60 Yaş ve Üzeri Bireylerin Günlük Yaşam Aktivite Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi. Sağlık ve Toplum 2006; 16(3): 84-96.
32. Rubensteın LZ. Falls in Older People: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Strategies for Prevention. Age Ageing 2006; 35(Supplement 2): ii37-ii41. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afl084
33. MacReady N. Psychotropic Medications Associated With Falls in Elderly Patients Archives of Internal Medicine 2009; 169: 1952-60.
34. Kawanabe K, Kawashima A, Sashimoto I, Takeda T, Sato Y, Iwamoto J. Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Exercise and Muscle Strengthening, Balance, and Walking Exercises on Walking Ability in The Elderly. The Keio Jornal of Medicine 2007; 56(1): 28-33.
35. Yaman H. Akdeniz M, Kanevetci Z. Ülkemizde Beklenilen Demografik Değişime Hazırlık: Yaşlı Dostu Birincil Bakım Merkezleri, RNA Aile Hekimliği Dergisi 2008; 2(4): 14-21.
The Bulletin of Legal Medicine is an open access scientific journal. Open access means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. The Journal and content of this website is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.
The Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) allows users to copy, distribute and transmit an article, adapt the article and make commercial use of the article. The CC BY license permits commercial and non-commercial re-use of an open access article, as long as the author is properly attributed.
The Bulletin of Legal Medicine requires the author as the rights holder to sign and submit the journal's agreement form prior to acceptance. The authors retain copyright of their work and grant the Association for its publication. This ensures both that The Journal has the right to publish the article and that the author has confirmed various things including that it is their original work and that it is based on valid research.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
*Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
*Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
*Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.