Parental Alienation - Father as a Rejected Parent
Objective: Parental Alienation is defined as an unfair, continuous and persistent rejection of a parent in the influence of the other parent. In this study, it was aimed to bring out the mechanisms and the origins affecting the Parental Alienation and to expose the perceptions of the father as rejected parent.
Materials and Methods: The study sample consists of 111 participants -38 fathers and 73 children- from 54 divorcing families at Istanbul Courthouse 9th Family Court. Social Demographic Data Form for determining the demographic features of participants, Baker Alienation Questionnaire for determining Parental Alienation in and Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) for determining parental attitudes of fathers were used. In order to clarify the fathers’ perspective on Parental Alienation in-depth interview was conducted.
Quantitative data were calculated by descriptive statistics, Chi Square Test and Kruskal Wallis Test, significance level was accepted as .05. Qualitative data, collected from in-depth interviews, were analyzed by the “content analysis”.
Results: The study exhibited that 42.5% of participant children had Parental Alienation to their fathers. The claims of domestic violence and physical violence against children, the father-child contact after separation and fathers’ ages were associated with the Parental Alienation. Children tended to show Parental Alienation behaviors to the fathers more frequently if there was alienation in siblings and the children of the fathers who had authoritarian, democratic and protective attitudes in childrearing were shown less Parental Alienation. According to the content analysis 4 major categories as; accusations against mothers, feelings of weakening in paternal identity and loss in father's rights and memories about their fatherhood experiences before the separation were determined.
Conclusion: Parental Alienation is frequently seen in the divorce incidents and the rejected fathers express more troubles.
2. Gardner, R. A. (1992). The Parental Alienation Syndrome. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.
3. Gardner, R. A. (1998). Recommendations for dealing with parents who induce a parental alienation syndrome in their children. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage. 28 (3-4). 1-23. doi: 10.1300/J087v28n03_01.
4. Warshak, R.A. (2001). Current controversies regarding parental alienation syndrome. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 19, 29-59.
5. Warshak, R. A. (2003). Bringing sense to parental alienation: a look at the disputes and the evidence. Family Law Quarterly, 37, 273-301.
6. Kelly, J., & Johnston, J. (2001). The alienated child: a reformulation of parental alienation syndrome. Family Court Review, 39(3), 249-266.
7. Clawar. S. S., & Rivlin, B. V. (1991). Children Held Hostage: Dealing With Programmed and Brainwashed Children. Chicago: American Bar Association.
8. Gardner, R. A. (1987). The Parental Alienation Syndrome and the Differentiation Between Fabricated and Genuine Child Sex Abuse. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.
9. Kalkavan, İ., & Büken, E. (2017). Boşanma davalarında çocuğun velayet hakkı için uygun ebeveynin belirlenmesi. Adli Tıp Bülteni, 22(1), 54-63. doi:10.17986/blm.2017127142.
10.Baker, A. J. L., Burkhard, B., & Albertson-Kelly, J. (2012). Differentiating alienated from not alienated children: a pilot study. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 53:3, 178-193. doi:10.1080/10502556.2012.663266.
11.Le Compte, G., Le Compte, A. & Özer, S. A. (1978). Üç sosyoekonomik düzeyde, Ankaralı annelerin çocuk yetiştirme tutumları: bir ölçek uyarlaması. Psikoloji Dergisi, 1 (1),
12. Corbin, J. & Strauss, A., 2007. Basics of Qualitative Research Techniques and Procedures for Grounded Theory. Thousand Oaks, LA: Sage.
13. Kopetski, L. M. (1991). Parental Alienation Syndrome. Recent Research Paper Presented At The 15th Annual Child Custody Conference, Keystone, Colorado.
14. Koerner, S. S., Wallace, S., Lehman, S. J., & Raymond, M. (2002). Mother-To-Daughter Disclosure After Divorce: Are There Costs and Benefits? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(4), 469-483.
15. Johnston, J. R., Walters, M. G., & Olesen, N. W. (2005). Is it alienating parenting, role reversal or child abuse? A study of children's rejection of a parent in child custody disputes. Journal of Child Custody, 5,191-218.
16. Wallerstein, J. S., & Kelly, K. B. (1980). Surviving the Breakup: How Children and Parents Cope With Divorce. New York: Basic Books.
17. Dunne, J., & Hedrick, M. (1994). The parental alienation syndrome: an analysis of sixteen selected cases. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 21, 21-38.
18. Baker, A.J.L. (2005). The long-term effects of parental alienation on adult children: a qualitative research study. American Journal of Family Therapy, 33(4), 289-302.
19. Baker, A., & Darnell, D. (2006). Behaviors and strategies employed in parental alienation. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 45, 97-124.
20. Johnston, J.R. (2003). Parental alignments and rejection: an empirical study of alienation in children of divorce. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 31, 158-170.
21. Stoltz, J. M., & Ney, T. (2002). Resistance to visitation: rethinking parental and child alienation. Family Court Review, 40, 220-231.
22.Bone, J. M. & Walsh, M. R. (1999). Parental alienation syndrome: how to detect it and what to do about it. The Florida Bar Journal, 73 (3), 44-48.
23. Drozd, L. M., & Olesen, N. W. (2004). Is it abuse, alienation and/or estrangement? A decision tree. Journal of Child Custody, 1(3), 65-106.
24. Vassiliou, D. & Cartwright, G. F. (2001). The lost parents' perspective on parental alienation syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 29(3), 181-191.
25. Oppenheimer, K. Primz, R.J. & Bella. B.S. (1990). Determinant of adjustment for children of divorcing parents. Family Medicine, 22(2), 107-111.
26. Güler, G., Yıldırım, V., Kütük, M. Ö., & Toros, F. (2016). Adli psikiyatrik değerlendirme ve çocuk ile iletişim. Adli Tıp Bülteni, 21 (2), 98-106. doi: 10. 107986/blm. 2016220395.
27. Harman, J. J., Leder-Elder, S. & Biringen, Z. (2016). Prevalence of parental alienation drawn from a representative poll. Children and Youth Services Review, 66, 62-66. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.04.021
28. Amato, P. R. & Fowler, F. (2002). Parenting practices, child adjustment and family diversity. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 64, 703-716.
29. Baker, A. J. L., Sauber, S. R. eds. (2012). Working with Alienated Children and Families: A Clinical Guidebook. Newyork: Routledge.
30. Baker, A. J. L. (2007). Adult Children of Parental Alienation Syndrome. New York, NY: Norton.
31. Kopetski, L. M. (1998). Identifying cases of parental alienation syndrome. The Colorado Lawyer, 29(2).65-68.
32. Gardner, R. A. (1999). Differentiating between parental alienation syndrome and bona tide abuse-neglect. American Journal of Family Therapy, 27(2), 97- 107.
33. Stahl, P. M. (1999). Complex Issues in Child Custody Evaluations. SAGE Publications
34. Johnston, J. R., Walters, M. G., & Friedlander, S. (2001). Therapeutic work with alienated children and their families. Family Court Review, 39,3; 16-333
35. Sullivan, M. J., & Kelly, J. B. (2001). Legal and psychological management of cases with an alienated child. Family Courts Review, 39, 299-315.
36. Warshak, R. A. (2010). Family bridges: using insights from social science to reconnect parents and alienated children. Family Court Review, 48, 48-80.
Copyright (c) 2018 Gülden Elçim Üner Altuntaş, Neylan Ziyalar
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The Bulletin of Legal Medicine is an open access scientific journal. Open access means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. The Journal and content of this website is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.
The Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) allows users to copy, distribute and transmit an article, adapt the article and make commercial use of the article. The CC BY license permits commercial and non-commercial re-use of an open access article, as long as the author is properly attributed.
The Bulletin of Legal Medicine requires the author as the rights holder to sign and submit the journal's agreement form prior to acceptance. The authors retain copyright of their work and grant the Association for its publication. This ensures both that The Journal has the right to publish the article and that the author has confirmed various things including that it is their original work and that it is based on valid research.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
*Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
*Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
*Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.