Objective: Parental Alienation is defined as an unfair, continuous and persistent rejection of a parent in the influence of the other parent. In this study, it was aimed to bring out the mechanisms and the origins affecting the Parental Alienation and to expose the perceptions of the father as rejected parent.
Materials and Methods: The study sample consists of 111 participants -38 fathers and 73 children- from 54 divorcing families at Istanbul Courthouse 9th Family Court. Social Demographic Data Form for determining the demographic features of participants, Baker Alienation Questionnaire for determining Parental Alienation in and Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) for determining parental attitudes of fathers were used. In order to clarify the fathers’ perspective on Parental Alienation in-depth interview was conducted.
Quantitative data were calculated by descriptive statistics, Chi Square Test and Kruskal Wallis Test, significance level was accepted as .05. Qualitative data, collected from in-depth interviews, were analyzed by the “content analysis”.
Results: The study exhibited that 42.5% of participant children had Parental Alienation to their fathers. The claims of domestic violence and physical violence against children, the father-child contact after separation and fathers’ ages were associated with the Parental Alienation. Children tended to show Parental Alienation behaviors to the fathers more frequently if there was alienation in siblings and the children of the fathers who had authoritarian, democratic and protective attitudes in childrearing were shown less Parental Alienation. According to the content analysis 4 major categories as; accusations against mothers, feelings of weakening in paternal identity and loss in father's rights and memories about their fatherhood experiences before the separation were determined.
Conclusion: Parental Alienation is frequently seen in the divorce incidents and the rejected fathers express more troubles.
Gardner, R. A. (1985). Recent trends in divorce and custody litigation. Academy Forum, 29(2), 3-7.
Gardner, R. A. (1992). The Parental Alienation Syndrome. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.
Gardner, R. A. (1998). Recommendations for dealing with parents who induce a parental alienation syndrome in their children. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage. 28 (3-4). 1-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1300/J087v28n03_01.
Warshak, R.A. (2001). Current controversies regarding parental alienation syndrome. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 19, 29-59.
Warshak, R. A. (2003). Bringing sense to parental alienation: a look at the disputes and the evidence. Family Law Quarterly, 37, 273-301.
Kelly, J., & Johnston, J. (2001). The alienated child: a reformulation of parental alienation syndrome. Family Court Review, 39(3), 249-266.
Clawar. S. S., & Rivlin, B. V. (1991). Children Held Hostage: Dealing With Programmed and Brainwashed Children. Chicago: American Bar Association.
Gardner, R. A. (1987). The Parental Alienation Syndrome and the Differentiation Between Fabricated and Genuine Child Sex Abuse. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.
Kalkavan, İ., & Büken, E. (2017). Boşanma davalarında çocuğun velayet hakkı için uygun ebeveynin belirlenmesi. Adli Tıp Bülteni, 22(1), 54-63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17986/blm.2017127142.
Baker, A. J. L., Burkhard, B., & Albertson-Kelly, J. (2012). Differentiating alienated from not alienated children: a pilot study. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 53:3, 178-193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10502556.2012.663266.
Le Compte, G., Le Compte, A. & Özer, S. A. (1978). Üç sosyoekonomik düzeyde, Ankaralı annelerin çocuk yetiştirme tutumları: bir ölçek uyarlaması. Psikoloji Dergisi, 1 (1),
Corbin, J. & Strauss, A., 2007. Basics of Qualitative Research Techniques and Procedures for Grounded Theory. Thousand Oaks, LA: Sage.
Kopetski, L. M. (1991). Parental Alienation Syndrome. Recent Research Paper Presented At The 15th Annual Child Custody Conference, Keystone, Colorado.
Koerner, S. S., Wallace, S., Lehman, S. J., & Raymond, M. (2002). Mother-To-Daughter Disclosure After Divorce: Are There Costs and Benefits? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(4), 469-483.
Johnston, J. R., Walters, M. G., & Olesen, N. W. (2005). Is it alienating parenting, role reversal or child abuse? A study of children's rejection of a parent in child custody disputes. Journal of Child Custody, 5,191-218.
Wallerstein, J. S., & Kelly, K. B. (1980). Surviving the Breakup: How Children and Parents Cope With Divorce. New York: Basic Books.
Dunne, J., & Hedrick, M. (1994). The parental alienation syndrome: an analysis of sixteen selected cases. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 21, 21-38.
Baker, A.J.L. (2005). The long-term effects of parental alienation on adult children: a qualitative research study. American Journal of Family Therapy, 33(4), 289-302.
Baker, A., & Darnell, D. (2006). Behaviors and strategies employed in parental alienation. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 45, 97-124.
Johnston, J.R. (2003). Parental alignments and rejection: an empirical study of alienation in children of divorce. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 31, 158-170.
Stoltz, J. M., & Ney, T. (2002). Resistance to visitation: rethinking parental and child alienation. Family Court Review, 40, 220-231.
Bone, J. M. & Walsh, M. R. (1999). Parental alienation syndrome: how to detect it and what to do about it. The Florida Bar Journal, 73 (3), 44-48.
Drozd, L. M., & Olesen, N. W. (2004). Is it abuse, alienation and/or estrangement? A decision tree. Journal of Child Custody, 1(3), 65-106.
Vassiliou, D. & Cartwright, G. F. (2001). The lost parents' perspective on parental alienation syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 29(3), 181-191.
Oppenheimer, K. Primz, R.J. & Bella. B.S. (1990). Determinant of adjustment for children of divorcing parents. Family Medicine, 22(2), 107-111.
Güler, G., Yıldırım, V., Kütük, M. Ö., & Toros, F. (2016). Adli psikiyatrik değerlendirme ve çocuk ile iletişim. Adli Tıp Bülteni, 21 (2), 98-106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.107986/blm.2016220395
Harman, J. J., Leder-Elder, S. & Biringen, Z. (2016). Prevalence of parental alienation drawn from a representative poll. Children and Youth Services Review, 66, 62-66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.04.021
Amato, P. R. & Fowler, F. (2002). Parenting practices, child adjustment and family diversity. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 64, 703-716.
Baker, A. J. L., Sauber, S. R. eds. (2012). Working with Alienated Children and Families: A Clinical Guidebook. Newyork: Routledge.
Baker, A. J. L. (2007). Adult Children of Parental Alienation Syndrome. New York, NY: Norton.
Kopetski, L. M. (1998). Identifying cases of parental alienation syndrome. The Colorado Lawyer, 29(2).65-68.
Gardner, R. A. (1999). Differentiating between parental alienation syndrome and bona tide abuse-neglect. American Journal of Family Therapy, 27(2), 97- 107.
Stahl, P. M. (1999). Complex Issues in Child Custody Evaluations. SAGE Publications
Johnston, J. R., Walters, M. G., & Friedlander, S. (2001). Therapeutic work with alienated children and their families. Family Court Review, 39,3; 16-333
Sullivan, M. J., & Kelly, J. B. (2001). Legal and psychological management of cases with an alienated child. Family Courts Review, 39, 299-315.
Warshak, R. A. (2010). Family bridges: using insights from social science to reconnect parents and alienated children. Family Court Review, 48, 48-80.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.