The Bulletin of Legal Medicine <p align="justify"><img src="/public/site/images/halisdokgoz/v22_i1_cvr.jpg" alt="The Bulletin of Legal Medicine" width="200" align="left" border="0" hspace="5" vspace="5"><strong><br>The Bulletin of Legal Medicine</strong> which is the official publication of the Association of Forensic Medicine Specialists in Turkey is published three times a year.</p> <p align="justify"><strong>The Bulletin of Legal Medicine</strong> contains original articles, case reports, editorials, and letters to the editor and review articles on forensic sciences. The official languages of the journal are <strong>Turkish</strong> and <strong>English</strong>.</p> <p align="justify"><strong>The Bulletin of Legal Medicine is an international peer-reviewed forensic medicine &nbsp;journal.</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p align="justify"><br>All manuscripts which will be published in the journal must be in accordance with research and publication ethics.&nbsp;All articles are subject to review by the editors and referees. If the article is accepted for publication, it may be subject to editorial revisions to aid clarity and understanding without changing the data presented.</p> <p align="justify">All authors should have contributed to the article directly either academically or scientifically. The authors must assume all the responsibility of their articles.</p> <p align="justify">"<strong>Prof. Dr. Halis Dokgöz</strong>, Mersin University Medical Faculty, Department of Forensic Medicine, Mersin, TURKEY" must be used for all kinds of correspondence.</p> <p align="justify"><strong>Manuscript submission:</strong>&nbsp;All manuscripts should be submitted by online system of journal at&nbsp;<strong></strong>&nbsp;For consideration, all articles must be submitted online. Articles submitted in other forms will not be considered. All manuscripts submitted to The Bulletin of Legal Medicine are screened by Crosscheck in terms of originality.</p> <p align="justify">E-mail: <a href=""></a></p> <div align="justify"> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>p - ISSN 1300-865X</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>e - ISSN 2149-4533</strong></li> </ul> </div> The Association of Forensic Medicine Specialists (ATUD) en-US The Bulletin of Legal Medicine 1300-865X <p class="p1" align="justify">The Bulletin of Legal Medicine is an open access scientific journal. Open access means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. The Journal and content of this website is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.<br> The Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) allows users to copy, distribute and transmit an article, adapt the article and make commercial use of the article. The CC BY license permits commercial and non-commercial re-use of an open access article, as long as the author is properly attributed.<br> The Bulletin of Legal Medicine requires the author as the rights holder to sign and submit the <a title="Click to download the agreement form..." href=""><strong>journal's agreement form</strong></a> prior to acceptance. The authors retain copyright of their work and grant the Association for its publication. This ensures both that The Journal has the right to publish the article and that the author has confirmed various things including that it is their original work and that it is based on valid research.<br> Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br> *Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br> *Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.<br> *Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.<br><a title="CC Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)" href="" target="_blank"><img src="/public/site/images/drugurkocak/cc-by.png" alt="" hspace="5" vspace="5"></a></p> Editorial <p>Dear Forensic Scientists,</p> <p>With this number, you hold in your hands now, we have published the final issue of the Bulletin of Legal Medicine for 2017. We are happy to keep our promise about our punctuality and also our promise on publishing minimum twelve articles with this issue as well. We would like to express our gratitude to all scientists working in the field of forensic sciences who contributed our journal to become a focal point where our journal is scanned by Tübitak Ulakbim TR Index and international DOAJ databases (Directory of Open Access Journals).</p> <p>In this edition of our journal, we are glad to share with you fascinating and up to date subjects of forensic sciences including Evaluation of Handwritings of Identical Twins by Forensic Handwriting Principles, Turkish Adaptation of Cyberbullying Scale, The Perspective of the Court of Cassation and the Problems Concerning the Expert System in the Light of the Relevant Judgements and also Semantic Analyses in Forensic Text Types.</p> <p>We wish to raise the eligibility of our journal higher by being aware of the fact that being scientific is the only way to build up a future for forensic sciences, and we wish to continue to be a common platform sharing the latest studies in Forensic Medicine and Forensic Science areas...</p> <p>Prof. Dr. Halis Dokgöz<br> Editor</p> Halis Dokgöz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 22 3 The Relationship of Children Driven to Crime with Place of Residence, Crime Scene and Type of Crime: The Sample of 2nd Juvenile Court of İstanbul Court House <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Studies of children’s residences has gained importance depending on the fact that environmental risk factors are more significant than individual risk factors in juvenile delinquency. This research aims to determine the settlements where children intensively driven to crime, identify typical type of crime in these neighborhoods and reveal the relationship between the places where the child is living and driven to crime. With the results of this study, it is aimed to shed light on the prevention studies that must be conducted in the neighborhoods where children intensively driven to crime.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this study, 520 justified decisions, finalized in 2015 about 668 children driven to crime, that were reached from the second juvenile court of İstanbul Courthouse were examined. Descriptive analysis was used in order to determine frequency and percentage distribution of the data and chi-square test was used to assess the interrelatedness of categorical variables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of subjects, 90% were male and 76.5% were in the 15-18 age range. When the distribution of the type of crime was examined, crime against property (62%) seemed to be more intensive. In terms of the distribution of crime scene, it was observed that Fatih (27.5%), Şişli (19.3%) and Beyoğlu (15.3%) districts come forward. In the sequence of districts where children driven to crime resided Fatih (19%) came in the first place again, afterwards Beyoğlu (13.5%), Kağıthane (11.4%) and Eyüp (9.7%) districts came. Nevertheless, when examined on the basis of the neighborhood, İstiklal Neighborhood, which located in Beyoğlu district, came first. By the result of chi-square tests, it was observed that the relations between type of crime and crime scene, place of residence and crime scene, type of crime and place of residence were statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> By assessing crime scene, type of crime and place of residence together, the study showed that Fatih district came first at all of these variables. When examined at the level of residential neighborhood, it was revealed that in some neighborhoods, a particular type of crime has been specialized.</p> Zeynep Gülüm Zeynep Pınar Cohen Yusuf Tunç Demircan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 22 3 155 162 10.17986/blm.2017229415 Evaluation of Handwritings of Identical Twins by Forensic Handwriting Principles <p><strong>Objective:</strong> In the field of forensic science, one of the most noteworthy topics about identical twins is hand writing.</p> <p>In this study; It is aimed to determine the degree of similarity of the handwritings of the identical twins and to evaluate the effect of the genetic similarities in terms of examination of the judicial documents.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In our study; “Atatürk’ün Gençliğe Hitabesi”- “Atatürk’s Speech to Youth” is printed on 100 voluntary adults. Letters “a, b, d, g, m, r, ş, u, v, y, z” were examined with the aid of a magnifying glass and ruler.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were no statistically significant differences in the similarity rates of the handwritten characters with the variables analyzed (gender of twins, age, occupation of the same profession, same level of education, residence time in the same household, frequency of use of writing, (p&gt;0.05). The letter “d” (56%) used by 50 twin pairs was used as the most similar letter, and the letter “m” (14%) was used as the least similar letter. It has been found that the handwritings of female couples show more similarity than male couples. The similarity rates of female twins in their handwriting were 90.9% maximum, minimum 0%; The similarity ratios of the male twins to the handwriting maximum: 54.54%, minimum 0%. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Even though the handwriting is highly similar in our work, we have achieved results that support the scientific truth that the two handwriting cannot be quite similar. The results are important in terms of diagnostic features in the identification of handwritings.</p> Behice Şeyda Türedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 22 3 163 171 10.17986/blm.2017332733 Turkish Adaptation of Cyberbullying Scale <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Cyberbullying is all of technically or relationally endamaging behaviors that are exhibited to an individual or a group, a specific or a legal entity by using information and communication technologies. It is observed questionnaire type of classification or sorting type of measuring tools are mostly used in terms of cyberbullying abroad. The aim of the study is to make Turkish adaptation of ‘Cyberbullying Questionnaire’ that is developed by Stewart at al.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This survey is carried out in 5 public and 2 private schools depended on the Ministry of Education in Pendik district of Istanbul city. 633 students who study in 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th grades of the chosen schools construct the sample of the study. In the research, Socio-demographic Information Form and Cyberbullying Scale are used as data collection tool through face to face application. The findings obtained are analyzed via SPSS 21 statistical software.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The coefficients of “Factor Analysis” and “Cronbach Alpha” are calculated as validity-reliability tests. After factor analysis, coefficient of total internal consistency of the scale consisted of 13 items is calculated as crα=.87. The coefficients of the factors’ internal consistency are calculated as crα=.85 for the first factor and crα=.74 for the second one. With the total scores gathered from Cyberbullying Scale, the relationship between severity of being disturbed by other children and disturbing other children in the internet environment is found positively (r=0,48) meaningful.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Cyberbullying Scale, which has adapted to Turkish is evaluated as applicable and has high internal consistency.</p> Selda Küçük Mehmet Akif İnanıcı Neylan Ziyalar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 22 3 172 176 10.17986/blm.2017331584 Magnetic Resonance Imaging of The Distal Radial Epiphysis Forensic Age Estimation in Living Individuals <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Determining forensic age is very important in legal and civil rights cases, particularly in those involving children and young adults. Although methods for performing such estimates have been developed and their reliability has been demonstrated, radiation exposure has become controversial. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used in an attempt to protect patients from radiation exposure. The aim of this study is to evaluate usefulness of staging via magnetic resonance imaging of distal radial epiphysis in age estimation.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this study, 198 hand-wrists (patient age, 12–20 years) were retrospectively evaluated with MRI using the “distal radial epiphysis assessment method,” which was used previously by Dvorak to evaluate professional sportsmen.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The ages at which bony fusion occurs have been identified. Females reach stage 2 at 13 years, stages 3 and 4 at 14 years, stage 5 at 15 years, and stage 6 at 16 years, whereas males reach stages 2 and 3 at 14 years, stage 4 at 15 years, and stages 5 and 6 at 16 years.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although the non-ionizing Dvorak method of analyzing the distal radius epiphysis was successfully used for subjects aged 13–16 years, it failed to provide data about 17 and 18-year-olds. Thus, we need to develop a method for this age group and expand the applicable population.</p> Oğuzhan Ekizoğlu Elif Hocaoğlu Ercan İnci ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 22 3 177 183 10.17986/blm.2017227230 Investigation of Blank Cartridge Gun Harming Potential in Target Range of 0-5 cm <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of our study is to show through experiments harming potential of blank firing guns, which are known to be harmless mistakenly.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method:</strong> Two different types of blank firing guns were utilized to shot at chicken leg as a tissue simulant; at a distance of 0-5 cm. Results of the experiments were photographed and recorded in a digital platform.</p> <p>Contact shot at chicken leg caused full-thickness bone fracture and full-thickness tissue penetration. In contrast, correlation was not detected between dimensions of smoothing and tissue damage on the target. We think that the causes of results that have no correlation, as weather conditions, wind, temperature, defiency of blank cartridge guns.</p> <p><strong>Findings and Conclusion:</strong> The results we had, studies and case reports about this subject in literature exhibit obviously harming potential of blank firing guns for human body. No significant correlation was determined between damage, diameter of soot and shot range in 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. A new research about the correlation between damage, diameter of soot and different close range of shot can be performed in another study.</p> Serbülent Kılıç Gürol Cantürk Gökhan İbrahim Öğünç ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 22 3 184 188 10.17986/blm.2017331585 Retrospective Evaluation of Disability Reports In Çukurova University Forensic Medicine Department <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Disability; is defined as disablement. Disability, a word in Arabic origin, is derived from the word “malady” which means disablement, illness, unstable condition. The loss of function, due to injuries or occupational reasons, which does not improve and continue in a sequential manner despite all the treatments applied is defined as disability and the disability rate—profit loss rate in profession—is determined as the rate determined by using prepared scales—determining the loss amount of the whole body compared to the earning power in the profession. In this study, it was aimed that, revealing the contents of and results of disability reports and discussing results in the light of literature.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Disability reports sent by courts to Çukurova University Forensic Medicine Department between the dates of 01.01.2013 and 30.06.2016, whom claimed maimed after traffic accidents and other causes like work accidents, examined retrospectively.</p> <p><strong>Results: In </strong>total, 3835 disability files submitted by courts were included in the study. There were 2892 male (75.4%) and 943 (24.6%) female cases. The age range was between 1–79 years and it was observed that most of the cases were in the 30-39 age group. 3768 (98.3%) of the cases were injured due to traffic accidents and 67 (1.7%) were injured due to incidents rather than traffic accidents. The average rate of disability was 17.7%. The highest disability rate range was found to be in the 10-19.9 percent group. Of the cases, 587 (15.3%) were found not to have a reduction in earning power in the profession. During the calculation of the disability reports, 833 (21.7%) cases were found to be appraised because there was no item meeting the restriction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is believed that forensic medicine specialists often fail to provide a standard practice in disability reports. In order to achieve this standardization, it is necessary to increase the number of collaborations. In terms of helping to ensure justice, we think that each of the regulations used in the disability calculation alone is inadequate for which reason it is necessary to establish a new regulation which includes more detailed, current professions.</p> Ahmet Hilal Eren Akgündüz Kenan Kaya Kemal Yılmaz Necmi Çekin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 22 3 189 193 10.17986/blm.2017332032 A Causal Evaluation on The Issue of Femicide: The Instinct of Possession <p>Femicide that is an increasingly agenda in our country has been tried to be investigated through the fact of having. The perception of gender, femininity and masculinity is important in terms of determining the positions, roles and duties in community. In this study, “the sense of having” which is thought to have emerged from the perception of gender, has been tried to be explained by Fromm’s concepts of “to be” and “to have”.</p> <p>For this study scholarly articles, books and dissertations about femicide and its leading factors as well as statistical results of 2017 from “We Will Stop Femicide Platform” have been reviewed.</p> <p>Fromm’s concept of “to be” finds itself as “self-realization” in Humanistic/ Existentialist theories. Self-realization in humanistic theories defines a psychologically healthy person. Fromm defines “having” as to take possession, to dominate on it and to have right to use it. Since “having” brings with it its protection at any cost, the loss of possessed object is perceived as a threat to integrity of personality.</p> <p>Studies often show that men resort to violence when they perceive threats to their authorities or statutes. If the masculine authority is perceived as the basic element of the man’s self, the opposition is perceived totally as an attack to the self</p> <p>The perception of a woman as a possessed object brings with it the right to use her as he wishes and the right to kill her when necessary. It is important to have long-term and systematically planned “being” based trainings in the change of this social perception.</p> <p>As a result; instead of focusing on the pudicity perception of sex, individuals must be provided to focus on the facts of respect, the equality of woman and man, universal honesty and truthfulness. It should be emphasized that the fact of pudicity is the individual’s own values. Awareness-raising activities, studies and programs should be planned to evaluate the relationship between having an object and becoming an individual.</p> Şahide Güliz Kolburan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 22 3 194 199 10.17986/blm.2017228672 The Perspective of the Court of Cassation and the Problems Concerning the Expert System in the Light of the Relevant Judgements <p class="MetinGvdesi" style="line-height: 150%; margin: 0cm 5.65pt 6.0pt 0cm;"><span style="color: black;">Although the experts and the expert system are tools for assessing the evidence which directly affects “the right to fair trial”, it has become one of the major problems of the judiciary system since it has not been institutionalized yet. </span></p> <p class="MetinGvdesi" style="line-height: 150%; margin: 0cm 5.65pt 6.0pt 0cm;"><span style="color: black;">Even though the Law No: 6754 on Expert Report has been an important step towards institutionalization of the expert system, the main tool for judicial review in this field is, for sure, the judgments of the high courts.</span></p> <p class="MetinGvdesi" style="line-height: 150%; margin: 0cm 5.65pt 6.0pt 0cm;"><span style="color: black;">This article elaborates on the perspective of the Court of Cassation (CoC) regarding the expert system and legal status of the experts considering the criteria used in the judgments of the Court of Cassation, principles described by the Law No: 6754 and relevant regulation and various solutions occurred in practice.</span></p> Gökhan Karaburun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 22 3 200 207 10.17986/10.17986/blm.2017333478 Semantic Analyses in Forensic Text Types <p>In recent years it has become inevitable to consult linguists in order to gain expert opinion in many forensic investigations. Forensic linguists, who are frequently faced with the analyses of forensic text types, can indeed play an important role in the solution of criminal cases, the tracking down of an offender or essentially may even contribute to the decision-making process of judges. Hence, this article deals with cases which a forensic linguist may encounter in their profession; in particular with cases which include different semantic analysis strategies to be applied in forensic text types. Specifically the case of polysemy will be dealt with, which constitutes a particular instance in relevance to lexical ambiguity and thus represents an important problem in communication. Thus, this article discusses four cases with regard to analyses to be performed in forensic text types by forensic linguists.</p> Burcu İlkay Karaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 22 3 208 217 10.17986//blm.2017332897 Two Epileptic Death Cases with Postmortem Diagnosis: Tuberosclerosis Complex <p>Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by skin manifestations and formation of multiple benign tumors in different organs such as brain, kidneys, heart, liver, eyes and lungs. Two 15 years old females who had epilepsy for a long time were diagnosed TSC by autopsy performed in Forensic Medicine Institute. In this study, we aim that emphasize the importance of ‘medical autopsy’ to diagnose TSC and discuss this rare disorder which have only epilepsy in patient’s medical history in forensic medicine practice via current literature.</p> Hüseyin Çetin Ketenci Emel Çakır İbrahim Demir Nazım Ercüment Beyhun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 22 3 218 223 10.17986/blm.2017228062 Lazarus Phenomenon in Medicolegal Perspective: A Case Report <p>Auto-resuscitation or with the common name Lazarus phenomenon is unassisted return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest. Lazarus phenomenon takes a little place in the medical literature. Doctors are reluctant to publish case reports because of apprehension of being sued due to medical malpractice. In the other hand Lazarus phenomenon is a rare and interesting topic for public media. In the forensic point of view, it’s important that if a Lazarus phenomenon is connected with medical negligence or not. All “Lasarus” case reports in the literature are informing that a time interval between declaration of death and noticing spontaneous circulation-inhalation from a few second to 33 minutes. Possibly there are no other example of 3 hours time interval between death declaration and noticing auto-resuscitation rather than in our case report.</p> Aykut Taner Güven Gavril Petridis Şeyda Şebnem Özkal Ersi Abacı Kalfoglu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 22 3 224 227 10.17986/blm.2017330661 Methanol Toxicity: Case Report <p>Methyl alcohol is an alcohol commonly used in the industry. It is also used in illegally produced drinks. Methyl alcohol poisoning is a clinical condition that causes vision loss, basal ganglion damage and metabolic acidosis with high risk of death. Bicarbonate supplementation, antidote administration and hemodialysis are applied to correct metabolic acidosis. We present in this study a 45-year-old male who was admitted to the Eye Polyclinic with sudden visual loss and was treated as methyl alcohol poisoning due to drinking 48 hours ago.</p> Hümeyra Yıldırım Can Halil Kırbıyık ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 22 3 228 230 10.17986/blm.2017333104