The Bulletin of Legal Medicine <p align="justify"><img src="/public/site/images/halisdokgoz/v23_i1_cvr_front.png" alt="The Bulletin of Legal Medicine" width="200" align="left" border="0" hspace="5" vspace="5"><strong><br>The Bulletin of Legal Medicine</strong> which is the official publication of the Association of Forensic Medicine Specialists in Turkey is published three times a year.</p> <p align="justify"><strong>The Bulletin of Legal Medicine</strong> contains original articles, case reports, editorials, and letters to the editor and review articles on forensic sciences. The official languages of the journal are <strong>Turkish</strong> and <strong>English</strong>.</p> <p align="justify"><strong>The Bulletin of Legal Medicine is an international peer-reviewed forensic medicine &nbsp;journal.</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p align="justify"><br>All manuscripts which will be published in the journal must be in accordance with research and publication ethics.&nbsp;All articles are subject to review by the editors and referees. If the article is accepted for publication, it may be subject to editorial revisions to aid clarity and understanding without changing the data presented.</p> <p align="justify">All authors should have contributed to the article directly either academically or scientifically. The authors must assume all the responsibility of their articles.</p> <p align="justify">"<strong>Prof. Dr. Halis Dokgöz</strong>, Mersin University Medical Faculty, Department of Forensic Medicine, Mersin, TURKEY" must be used for all kinds of correspondence.</p> <p align="justify"><strong>Manuscript submission:</strong>&nbsp;All manuscripts should be submitted by online system of journal at&nbsp;<strong></strong>&nbsp;For consideration, all articles must be submitted online. Articles submitted in other forms will not be considered. All manuscripts submitted to The Bulletin of Legal Medicine are screened by Crosscheck in terms of originality.</p> <p align="justify">E-mail: <a href=""></a></p> <div align="justify"> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>p - ISSN 1300-865X</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>e - ISSN 2149-4533</strong></li> </ul> </div> en-US <p class="p1" align="justify">The Bulletin of Legal Medicine is an open access scientific journal. Open access means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. The Journal and content of this website is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.<br> The Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) allows users to copy, distribute and transmit an article, adapt the article and make commercial use of the article. The CC BY license permits commercial and non-commercial re-use of an open access article, as long as the author is properly attributed.<br> The Bulletin of Legal Medicine requires the author as the rights holder to sign and submit the <a title="Click to download the agreement form..." href=""><strong>journal's agreement form</strong></a> prior to acceptance. The authors retain copyright of their work and grant the Association for its publication. This ensures both that The Journal has the right to publish the article and that the author has confirmed various things including that it is their original work and that it is based on valid research.<br> Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br> *Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br> *Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.<br> *Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.<br><a title="CC Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)" href="" target="_blank"><img src="/public/site/images/drugurkocak/cc-by.png" alt="" hspace="5" vspace="5"></a></p> (Prof. Dr. Halis Dokgöz) (Yrd. Doç. Dr. Uğur Koçak) Fri, 06 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Editorial <p>Dear Forensic Scientists,<br>As we promised you during the 15 th Forensic Sciences Congress which is a scientific meeting platform of the scientists working in the field of forensic sciences, we are grateful to present you the first volume of the Bulletin of Legal Medicine for 2018. We are presenting you a volume that should be archived including different fields of forensic sciences once again.<br>Sexual violence of children and women is one of the primary subjects of our country nowadays and it is sustaining to be aware of the fact that this issue was scientifically scrutinized in our journal for years and it was referenced for numerous studies and for the press as well, proving that we were on the correct path for all these years. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient scientific data showing the actual extent of the harassment of children and women in our country, which in return creates a problem to reveal this issue subjectively. As being one of the first countries signing the Convention on the Right of the Children, we should highlight the fact that, any individual who is under 18 years old is both medically and legally a child. Besides this, we should also raise our voices in a scientific way for all these children for any medical, legal and social sanction and implementation. The way of it is to share our knowledge and studies in this field in the Bulletin of Legal Medicine which is an internationally known journal that is scanned by Tubitak Ulakbim TR Index and international DOAJ databases (Directory of Open Access Journals). We would like to invite all scientists to direct their studies in these relevant fields to our journal.<br>We wish to raise the eligibility of our journal higher by being aware of the fact that being scientific is the only way to build up a future for forensic sciences, and we wish to continue to be a common platform sharing the latest studies in Forensic Medicine and Forensic Science areas...<br>Prof. Dr. Halis Dokgoz<br>Editor</p> Halis Dokgöz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Attitudes of Medical Doctors towards Conflicting Situations in Forensic Case Declaration <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Double liability of health professionals occurs in situations in which decleration of forensic case is required. Medical doctors may experience conflicts between legislation and ethical principles. In this study, we aimed to explore the level of knowledge about forensic case declaration of medical doctors working at the XXX Medical Center. Also, we aimed to determine their attitudes and behaviours towards the situations in which ethical principles and legislation conflict is present to their knowledge. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We used a 22-item questionnaire including items to evaluate the definition of a forensic case, liability of declaration of forensic case, knowledge about legislation and ethical principles, attitudes and behaviour towards the conflicting situations. In total, 106 medical doctors were evaluated.<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Sixty-two percent of medical doctors follow legislation and 35% of them follow ethical principles when they face with conflicting situations.</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>We discussed situations in which medical and ethical principles contradict and agree with legislation. We believe that such discussion would be helpful to attitude changes in conflicting situations.</p> İsmail Özgür Can, Neşe Direk, Mehmet Hakan Özdemir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Evaluation of Forensic Postmortem Examination Training on the Model in Context of Structured Scenario <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Forensic postmortem examination is an issue that physicians have difficulties and have legal problems. It would be appropriate to add applications that are more memorable and appealing to the students for forensic postmortem examination education in medical faculties. This study was conducted in order to measure the results of the "forensic postmortem examination education on the model in the context of a structured scenario", which may be a good model for the application of interactive methods, at the Faculty of Medicine of Pamukkale University.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>Eighty-eight 5th term students who were in forensic medicine training and 52 6th term students who were in public health training participated in the study. The knowledge and skill levels before and after the training and the opinions and recommendations about the education were evaluated and compared with standard forms.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>When pre-test and post-test answers are evaluated; the positive difference between the pre-test and post-test answers of all the students was statistically significant in which the level of knowledge was assessed, except for the first question’s answer in 5th term students. When the forms of opinions and recommendations are examined; it was understood that the vast majority of the students had confidence in themselves in the practice of postmortem examination and the decision of the autopsy which they would encounter in the future, all students who gave written feedback reported that the education was fruitful and useful and that they were pleased with this education.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our practice has been a successful practice in acquiring the skills of forensic postmortem examination which is in the pre-graduate medical education core curriculum. This practice can also set an example for other medical schools in the teaching of forensic postmortem examination.</p> Volkan Zeybek, Kemalettin Acar, Ayşe Kurtuluş Dereli, Cüneyt Orhan Kara ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of The Sequence of Intersecting Lines on Writing and Signature Examination <p><strong>Objective:</strong> In this study, how effectively the stereo microscopes can be used in the crossings created using both the same kind of (ballpoint pen) ink (homogeneous) and different types of (pen/inkjet-laser printer) inks (heterogeneous).</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> In order to decide the effectiveness of the stereo microscope in detecting the upside-down relation of the crossing lines and the time of the formation for these lines, homogeneous and heterogeneous crossing line samples prepared by using 3 different black ballpoint pens, 3 different blue ballpoint pens, laser printer and inkjet printer are analyzed by fourteen experienced document examination experts via their own methods and by authors using stereo microscope.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the examinations conducted by fourteen document examination experts with loop; the total line detection rate in the heterogeneous samples where the laser printer and inkjet printer prints and the ink lines are crossing changes between 33% and 83%, and the average detection rate is 60%. However, in the homogeneous samples created with black and blue ballpoint pens, line detection rates were found to be significantly low in determining the order of the crossing lines. Average line detection rate is 43%.</p> <p>In the same samples, an examination was carried authors by using stereo microscope; while &nbsp;reliable results could not be obtained in the homogeneous crossings, confidential results were obtained in the heterogeneous crossings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Consequently, it was decided that the formation order by stereo microscope can be capably and effectively determined in the heterogeneous crossings consisting of ballpoint pen and printer print.</p> Nurcan Hamzaoğlu, Mustafa Fatih Yavuz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Parental Alienation - Father as a Rejected Parent <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Parental Alienation is defined as an unfair, continuous and persistent rejection of a parent in the influence of the other parent. In this study, it was aimed to bring out the mechanisms and the origins affecting the Parental Alienation and to expose the perceptions of the father as rejected parent.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The study sample consists of 111 participants -38 fathers and 73 children- from 54 divorcing families at Istanbul Courthouse 9th Family Court. Social Demographic Data Form for determining the demographic features of participants, Baker Alienation Questionnaire for determining Parental Alienation in and Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) for determining parental attitudes of fathers were used. In order to clarify the fathers’ perspective on Parental Alienation in-depth interview was conducted.</p> <p>Quantitative data were calculated by descriptive statistics, Chi Square Test and Kruskal Wallis Test, significance level was accepted as .05. Qualitative data, collected from in-depth interviews, were analyzed by the “content analysis”.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study exhibited that 42.5% of participant children had Parental Alienation to their fathers. The claims of domestic violence and physical violence against children, the father-child contact after separation and fathers’ ages were associated with the Parental Alienation. Children tended to show Parental Alienation behaviors to the fathers more frequently if there was alienation in siblings and the children of the fathers who had authoritarian, democratic and protective attitudes in childrearing were shown less Parental Alienation. According to the content analysis 4 major categories as; accusations against mothers, feelings of weakening in paternal identity and loss in father's rights and memories about their fatherhood experiences before the separation were determined.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Parental Alienation is frequently seen in the divorce incidents and the rejected fathers express more troubles.</p> Gülden Elçim Üner Altuntaş, Neylan Ziyalar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Effects of Killing Liquids on the Larval Length of Forensically Important Lucilia sericata <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Forensic entomological practices rely upon accurate larval identification and measurement of larval length, for the estimation of post-mortem intervals. The methods used for killing larvae may affect the length of larvae. In the autopsy hall, corpses which are contain entomological remains have been washed with grape vinegar. Besides, while collecting and killing the larvae on corpses, crime scene teams use ethanol 70% because it is practical.</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine which of hot water (90°C), cold vinegar and cold ethanol 96% method, preserved the best the length of larvae.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>To achieve this aim, third instar larvae which are reared on 200 g of veal meat were killed using hot water, cold vinegar and cold ethanol. Before killing and after killing the maggots, their length was measured. To determine the difference between the groups to be compared ANOVA test, to reliability and validity analyses Kruskal-Wallis and whether there was any difference between the groups were made with Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (Tukey’s HSD)</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusion: </strong>Hot water was found to preserve the length of the larvae more accurately than cold vinegar and ethanol. Forensic medicine experts and crime scene teams should kill the larvae collected from a corpse for entomological examination using hot water, dry them in paper towels and preserve them in 96% ethanol and then send them to a forensic entomologist.</p> Halide Nihal Açıkgöz, Ali Açıkgöz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Evaluation of Clinical and Sociodemographic Characteristics of the Children Dragged to Crime <p><strong>Objective:</strong> In the evaluation of children dragged to crime aged between 13 and 15 years-old, risk factors should be examined in detail. In this study, the primary goal of is evaluation of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of juvenile offenders and the secondary goal is to examine the features that the clinician considers while setting up reports.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: Medical records of children dragged to crime aged between 13 and 15 years old were evaluated retrospectively. The sociodemographic characteristics of children and their parents’ crime type, crime story, family crime story and report result were included in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The majority of cases (87.1%) were males. 31.7% of the cases left school. 55.4% were able to perceive the legal meaning and outcome of the crime and to direct their behavior. 43.6% had a mental disorder and the most common disorder was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The most common type of crime was wounding. 32.7% had repetitive crime stories. Both in the group that perceives the legal meanings and consequences of the crime and in the group of repetitive crime revealed statistically significant school failure, parental consanguinity, crime story in first-degree relative, cigarette/alcohol/substance abuse, and mental illness. Beck depression and trait anxiety scale (STAI-2) scores were higher in the group of repetitive crime. Theft (p=0.012) and battery crimes (p=0.046) tended to repeat more often.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> Prominent risk factors in both criminal responsibility and repetitive crime groups are school failure, parental consanguinity, crime stories in relatives, cigarette/alcohol/substance abuse, and mental disorders. Although it is known that these risk factors may be a genetic ground, it is striking that many of them are features that can be prevented by protective and supportive studies. Social projects need to be developed for the children dragged to crime.</p> Gülen Güler, Mehmet Ali Sungur, Meryem Özlem Kütük ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 An Alternative Specimen in Toxicological Analysis: Nail <p>The use of alternative biological samples has increased with the development of sensitive and selective analytical techniques in recent days. Keratinous biological samples such as hair and nail have attracted the attention of clinical and forensic toxicologist when blood and urine sample especially were not taken in cases which were the decomposed and unfolded postmortem cases.</p> <p>Drugs, medicines, drug of abuse and heavy metals may accumulate for a long time in hair and nail. The nail sample may be useful for toxicological analysis when the hair sample, which is a good marker for past use, is inadequate. Sample preparation and analytical methods to be used are important because of the complex structure of nail and low drug concentration detected in nail.</p> <p>In this study, the basic structure of nail used as an alternative to toxicological analysis, the mechanism of drug or substance transfer into the nail, analytical methods, the advantages / disadvantages of nails and how to interpret the results will be examined.</p> Pınar Efeoğlu Özşeker, Nebile Dağlıoğlu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Aptamer Applications in Forensic Science: Cocaine Detection and Latent Fingerprint Visualization Cases <p>Aptamers, also known as artificial antibodies, are capture elements that are attached to target molecules of different sizes with high affinity, and selectivity. They are successfully used in many different sensor applications over the last 30 years. Aptamers have unique advantages such as being able to be produced in a laboratory environment in contrast to antibodies produced via immunoactivity, easy to amplify and purify and to be produced in an infinite configuration. In addition to the military, environmental, food safety and medical applications, the use of aptamers in forensic sciences is inevitable. In this article, examples of aptamers and their applications in forensic sciences are given. Due to a large number of applications in the literature, latent fingerprint visualization and cocaine detection cases are given as examples of aptamer applications in forensic science.</p> Mustafa Oğuzhan Çağlayan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 A Hard-to-Detect Signature Forgery Method “Freehand Simulation”: Case Report <p><strong>Background: </strong>Signature is defined as any kind of distinctive mark which assures the identity of its generator in a certain way while demonstrating the generator’s will for approval of the content of the document to which it is subscribed, not limited to those generated with a person’s handwriting, Forged signatures, that is, the signatures not generated by its owner himself on the related document, can be produced by various methods. Those methods can be listed as tracing, freehand simulation using a model, freehand simulation from memory, revenue stamp transferring, photocopying or computer assisted reproduction techniques and fabricating on behalf of imaginary identities. Generation via signature machines, a recently invented way gradually becoming more frequent, can be added to this list. <em>Freehand simulation from memory</em> is distinguished from other afore-mentioned methods in certain aspects. Simulator studies the genuine signature carefully for days, learns its all features by heart, make trials of generation and finally executes the simulation in one move when convinced for success. This method is the hardest to reveal for examiners with its distinct features.</p> <p><strong>Case: </strong>In our case, the signature subject to forgery investigation and the signatures obtained for comparison were found to be similar in signature characteristics such as signature velocity, dysfluency (jerk), slant and pen pressure. With a more detailed examination, it is understood that signatures are far different regarding start and stop points, stroke settings and counts, upstroke and down stroke patterns. Considering those findings, it is inferred that signature subject to investigation is generated by simulation using freehand method by memory.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>In this study, a forgery case relatively hard to detect is presented with sample images with the aim to emphasize acting in a very sensitive manner and asking for experienced specialist view for such cases is a must.</p> Güven Seçkin Kırcı, Halil İlhan Aydoğdu, Hasan Okumuş, Erdal Özer, Ahmet Eryılmaz, İsmail Birincioğlu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 04 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 An Example Case of System Error in Evaluation of Medical Malpractice <p>Medical malpractice, which is defined as “patients’ harm resulting from healthcare professionals’ improper and unethical attitude or insufficient and sloppy practice”, is strictly limited to healthcare professionals’ errors in practice. However, it should include system error analysis. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>In this article, a missed case of system error resulted in death is presented to remind the concept to Forensic Medicine experts and review the literature.</p> <p>A 20-year-old male who underwent renal transplantation from a live donor, underwent graft nephrectomy due to acute accelerated rejection. The patient with cardiac overload findings in the postoperative period, collapsed while the patient was being sent to a special center for urgent dialysis due to lack of functional dialysis unit. In the transfer ambulance, there was no oxygen source and the patient was unable to actively ventilate. The patient died while under intensive care. In our evaluation, system error has been detected and the administration was held responsible.</p> <p>The experts who are asked about the medical malpractice have to take the basic concept of "medical error" as a basis for considering the mistakes of medical applications not only from the point of view of health professionals.</p> Mahmut Şerif Yıldırım, Aysun Balseven Odabaşı, Çetin Köse, Aykut Lale, Ali Rıza Tümer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Reevaluation of Intracranial Traumas Due to Life-Threating Criteria Which Doesn't Have Clinical Findings: Case Report <p>Gunshot wounds, towards to the head frequently ends with the fractures of the skull, brain hemorrhage and brain tissue damage. Each of these three injury types cause life-threatening due to the Turkish Penal Code, and they are usually seen together.</p> <p>As known, there are three basic foramens associated with cranium; superior and inferior orbital fissure and the optic channel which the optic nerve passes through.</p> <p>In presented case, a 39 years old female patient who was shot with a pump rifle (a kind of gunshot type) from her face and one pellet which does not produce any bone fracture or neurological symptom while passing the orbital pit, is presented.</p> <p>This case was found interesting because; even though these kinds of wounds are inside the criterias of life-threatening, in our case, the pellet which passes through the orbital pit did not produce any bone fracture, neurological symptom or brain tissue damage. In this study, it is aimed to discuss that should the life-threatening decision must be given just only according to the location of wound or should it be given according to the magnitude of damage?</p> Yusuf Atan, Murat Akbaba, Mustafa Kenan Asıldağ, Zekeriya Tataroğlu, Veysal Daş ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Car Accident Due to Horse Crossing the Motorway: Two Case Reports <p>Basic Commercial Court in Ankara wanted a report from our department of forensic medicine about two injury cases due to animal vehicle collision. The reports should include the disability rate and the duration of unfunctionality. After the examination we prepared the reports. Both vehicle collisions happened due to free ranging horse crossing the motorway. Both cases had different types of injury due to trauma. Vehicle collision due to horse crossing the motorway is rarely met in Turkey.</p> <p>Our first case is a man that had upper extremity and facial injury. He uses prothesis due to ear amputation. He has a scar tissue on the right side of his face and left forearm. The other case is three-years-old boy that had cranial bone fracture and cranial hematoma. He has also hemiparesis of the right side of body. Both cases have neurologic sequels but they have no psychiatric sequels.&nbsp;</p> <p>In literature, animal vehicle collisions involve lots of animal species such as kangaroo, deer, camel and moose. Animal vehicle collision involving the horses is rarely met. Forensic medicine specialists should state the causal link between traumatic events and disabilities in order to help justice. Our aim to present the current two cases is investigation of injuries of animal related collision and makes forensic medicine specialists pay attention to the subject of preparing reports about such cases.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Animal vehicle collision; death; disability; horse; injury; motorway.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Serbülent Kılıç, Gürol Cantürk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300