Evaluation of Diagnostic Methods Used in Drowning
AbstractDead bodies found in water causes a misconception that these deaths occurred secondary to drowning and usually originated from accidents. Diagnostic criteria of drowning are controversial. Studies about diagnostic methods concerning drowning will be compared and discussed in the present article. Data obtained from studies concerning dead bodies found in water are discussed in detail. However no specific finding which can point out drowning was determined. Detailed forensic examination and scene investigation have considerable contributions for accurate diagnosis. Early and appropriate autopsy is required to be performed in such cases. Key Words: Drowning, autopsy, diatom, immunohistochemistry
2. Yorulmaz C, Çakalır C. Suda Boğulma. İçinde Soysal Z, Çakalır C. Adli Tıp. Cilt I. İstanbul 1999:459-474.
3. Pekka Sauko, Bernard Knight. Death From Drowning. In: Knight's Forensic Pathology: .3rd Ed. London, 2004: 401-411.
4. Jason Payne-James, Anthony Busuttil, William Smock. Drowning. In: Forensic Medicine Clinical and Pathological Aspects. 1st Ed. GMM, San Francisco, 2003:247-259.
5. P Lunetta, A Pentilla, A Sajantila. Drowning in Finland: “External Cause” and “injury” codes. Injury Prevention 2002;8:342-344.
6. Philippe Lunetta, Anti Pentilla, Anti Sajantila. Circumtan- ces and macropathologic findings in 1590 consecutive cases of bodies found in water. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology 2002;23(4):371-376.
7. Yorulmaz C. Suda Boğulma Tanısında Diatom Testinin Değeri. Uzmanlık Tezi, İstanbul Üniversitesi. İstanbul 1996.
8. Salaçin S, Çekin N, Gülmen MK, Hilal A, Savran B. Retrospective analysis of the medicolegal deaths in Adana city. Turkey. XVIITH congress of the International Academy of Legal Medicine 1997.
9. Karagöz YM. Suda Boğulmaya Bağlı Ölüm Olgularının Adli Tıp Açısından İncelenmesi. Uzmanlık Tezi, Akdeniz Üniversitesi. Antalya 1990
10. Hottmar P. The presence of fluid in the paranasal sinuses in comperison with other diagnostic signs of drowning. So- ud Lek. 1995;40(4):34-6.
11. Hadley JA, Fowler DR. Organ Weight effects of drowning and asphyxiation on the lungs, liver, brain, heart, kidneys, and spleen. Forensic Science International 2003;133:190-196.
12. Delmonte C, Capelozzi VL. Morphologic determinants of asphyxia in lungs. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 2001;32(2):139-149.
13. Yorulmaz C, Arıcan N, Afacan I, Dokgöz H, Aşırdizer M. Pleural effusion in bodies recovered from water. Forensic Science international 2003;136:16-21.
14. Maeda H, Fukita K, Oritani S, Ishida K, Zhu B. Evaluation of post-mortem oxymetry with reference to the causes of death. Forensic Science International 1997;87:201-210.
15. Bajanowski T, Brinkman B, Stefanec AM, Barckhaus RH, Fechner G. Detection and anlysis of tracers in experimental drowning. Intenational journal of Legal Medicine 1998;111:57-61.
16. Azparren JE, Rodriguez AF, Vallejo G. Diagnosing death by drowning in fresh water using blood strontium as an indicator. Forensic Science international 2003;137:55-59.
17. Azparren JE, Vallejo G, Reyes E, Herranz A, Sancho M. Study of diagnostic value of strontium, chloride, haemoglobin and diatoms in immersion cases. Forensic Science International 1998;91:123-132.
18. Azparren JE, Ortege A, Bueno H, Andreu M. Blood strontium concentration related to the length of the agonal period in seawater drowning cases. Forensic Science International 2000;108:51-60.
19. Kamada S, Seo Y, Takahama K. A sndwich enzyme immu- noassey for pulmonary surfactant protein D and measu- ement of its blood levels in drowning victims. Forensic Science International 2000;109:51-63.
20. Lorente JA, Hernandez-Cueto C, Villanueva E, Luna JD. The usefulness of lung surfactant phospholipidis(LSPs) in the diagnosis of drowning. Journal of Forensic Science. 1990;35:1367-1372.
21. Zhu B, Ishida K, Quan L, Taniguchi M, Oritani S, Li D, Fujita MQ, Maeda H. Postmortem serum uric acid and creatinine levels in relation to the causes of death. Forensic Science International 2002;125:59-65.
22. Hadley JA, Smith GS. Evidence for an early onset of endogenous alcohol production in bodies recovered from the water: implications for stadying alcohol and drowning. Accident Analysis and Prevention 2003;35:763-769.
23. Nogami M, Takatsu A, Endo N, Ishiyama I. Immunohistochemical localization of c-fos in the nuclei of the medulla oblongata in relation to asphyxia. International Journal Legal Medicine. 1999;112:351-354.
24. Ishida K, Zhu BL, Quan L, Fujita MQ, Maeda H. Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A levels in cadaveric sera with reference to the cause of death. Forensic Science International 2000;109:125-133.
25. Maeda H, Fujita MQ, Zhu BL, Ishida K, Quan L, Oritani S, Taniguchi M. Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A as a marker of respiratory distress in forensic pathology: assessment of the immunohistochemical and biochemical findings. Legal Medicine 2003;5:318-321.
26. Zhu BL, Ishida K, Quan L, Fujita MQ, Maeda H. Immu- nohistochemistry of papoprotein A in forensic autopsy: reassessment in relation to the causes of death.ulmonary surfactant. Forensic Science international 2000;113:193-197.
27. Quan L, Zhu BL, Ishida K, Oritani S, Taniguchi M, Fujita MQ, Maeda H. Intranuclear ubiquitin immunoreakti- vity of the pigmented neurons of the substantia nigra in fatal acute mechanical asphyxiation and drowning. International Journal Legal Medicine. 2001;115:6-11.
28. Kubo S, Orihara Y, Gotohda T, Tokunaga I, Tsuda R, Ike- matsu K, Kitamura O, Yamamoto A, Nakasono I. Immu- nuhistochemical studies on neuronal changes in brain stem nucleus of forensic autopsied cases. I. Various cases of asphyxia and respiratory disorder. Nippon Hoigaku Zass- hi. 1998;52(6): 345-9.
29. Hu HZ, Chen Y, Wu JW, Yang G, Liao ZG. The changes of water channel protein 1 in the lungs of the drown rat. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2004;35(2):185-7.
30. Lunetta P, Pentilla A, Hallfors G. Scanning and transmission electron microscopica evidence of the capacity of diatoms to penetrate the alveolo-capillary barrier in drowning. International Journal Legal Medicine. 1998;111:229- 237.
31. Hürlimann J, Feer P, Elber F, Niederberger K. Diatom detection in the diagnosis of death by drowning. International Journal Legal Medicine. 2000;114:6-14.
32. Sidari L, Nuuno ND, Contantinides F, Melato M. Diatom testh with Soluene-350 to diagnose drowning in sea water. Forensic Science International. 1999;103:61-65.
33. Pollanen MS. Diatoms and homicide. Forensic Science International. 1998;91:29-34.
34. Ludes B, Coste M, North N, Doray S, Tracqui A, Kintz P. Diatom analysis in victim's tissues as an indicator of the site of drowning. International Journal Legal Medicine. 1999;112:163-166.
35. Funayama M, Mimasaka S, Nata M, Hashiyada M, Yajima Y. Diatom Numbers Around the Continental Shelf Break. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 2001;22(3):236-238.
36. Krstic S, Duma A, Janevska B, Levkov Z, Nikolova K, No- veska M. Diatoms in forensic expertise of drowning-a Macedonian experience. Forensic Science International. 2002;127:198-203.
37. Lunetta P, Levo A, Laitinen PJ, Fodstad H, Kontula K, Sa- jantila A. Molecular screening of selected long QT sydro- me(LQTS) mutations in 165 consecutive bodies found in water. Int J Legel Med. 2003;117:115-117.
38. Quan L, Zhu BL, Oritani S, Fujita MQ, Maeda H. Ultrasonographic densitometry of the lungs at autopsy: a preliminary investigation for possible application in forensic pathology. Legal Medicine. 2003;5:335-337.
The Bulletin of Legal Medicine is an open access scientific journal. Open access means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. The Journal and content of this website is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.
The Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) allows users to copy, distribute and transmit an article, adapt the article and make commercial use of the article. The CC BY license permits commercial and non-commercial re-use of an open access article, as long as the author is properly attributed.
The Bulletin of Legal Medicine requires the author as the rights holder to sign and submit the journal's agreement form prior to acceptance. The authors retain copyright of their work and grant the Association for its publication. This ensures both that The Journal has the right to publish the article and that the author has confirmed various things including that it is their original work and that it is based on valid research.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
*Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
*Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
*Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.