Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the types, frequency and causes of occupational violence experienced by physicians working in the province of Samsun, and their opinions regarding prevention strategies.
Materials and methods: The data from this descriptive research was collected, following ethical committee approval and institutional permissions, from questionnaire forms received from 865 physicians serving in the province of Samsun between 01.06.2013 and 30.11.2013 and volunteering to participate, and through face-to-face interviews. The data obtained were analyzed on SPSS software (Version 13.0), using descriptive statistics and the chi-square test.
Results: Five hundred eighty-seven (67.8%) of the 865 participants reported being subjected to occupational violence at least once; of these, 86.4% described the most recent violence as verbal, 74.4% reported violence from patient relatives and 38.9% from patients, 81.4% reported that the aggressors were male and 43.9% that they were exposed to violence for refusing illegitimate demands.
Of the physicians, 72.3% stated that physicians are subjected to violence because doctors are generally depicted as responsible for flaws in the health system, and 79.6% believed that legally enforced sanctions on the subject of violence against physicians need to be introduced in Turkey to prevent the problem.
Conclusion: As with much preventive medicine, violence must also be prevented before it happens.
Keywords: Violence, Workplace violence, Violence against physicians.
Kowalenko T, Gates D, Gillespie GL, Succop P, Mentzel TK. Prospective study of violence against ED workers. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2013;31(1):197-205. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0735675712003695 PubMed PMID: 23000325. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2012.07.010.
Martino DV. Workplace violence in the health sector – Country case studies Brazil, Bulgaria, Lebanon, Portugal, South Africa, Thailand, and an additional Australian study. Synthesis report.. ILO, WHO, ICN and PSI; 2002. Available from: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/injury/en/WVsynthesisreport.pdf (Access Date: 08/15/2014)
Keser Özcan N, Bİlgin H. Violence Towards Healthcare Workers in Turkey: A Systematic Review. Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Sci 2011;31(6):1442-1456. Available from: http://www.tipbilimleri.turkiyeklinikleri.com/abstract_61363.html DOI: https://doi.org/10.5336/medsci.2010-20795.
Adaş EB Elbek O, , Bakır K. Sağlık Sektöründe Şiddet: Hekimlere Yönelik Şiddet ve Hekimlerin Şiddet Algısı. Türk Tabipleri Birliği Gaziantep. Kilis Tabip Odası Yayını. Nisan 2008. Available from: http://www.ttb.org.tr/siddet/images/file/gaziantepsiddet.pdf (Access Date: 08/09/2014)
Ilhan MN, Ozkan S, Kurtcebe ZO, Aksakal FN. Gazi Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Hastanesinde Çalışan Araştırma Görevlileri ve İntörn Doktorlarda Şiddete Maruziyet ve Şiddetle İlişkili Etmenler. Toplum Hekimliği Bülteni 2009;28(3):15-23.
Saeki K, Okamoto N, Tomioka K, Obayashi K, Nishioka H, Ohara K, et al. Work-related Aggression and Violence Committed by Patients and Its Psychological Influence on Doctors. J Occup Health 2011;53(5):356-364. Available from: http://joi.jlc.jst.go.jp/JST.JSTAGE/joh/11-0108-OA?from=CrossRef PubMed PMID: 21828959. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1539/joh.11-0108-OA.
Heponiemi T, Kouvonen A, Virtanen M, Vänskä J, Elovainio M. The prospective effects of workplace violence on physicians’ job satisfaction and turnover intentions: the buffering effect of job control. BMC Health Serv Res 2014;14(1):19. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/14/19 PubMed PMID: 24438449. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-14-19.
Coles J, Koritsas S, Boyle M, Stanley J. GPs, violence and work performance - 'just part of the job?'.. Aust Fam Physician 2007 Mar;36(3):189-191. Available from: http://www.racgp.org.au/afp/200703/15396 PubMed PMID: 17339990.
Hills DJ, Joyce CM. Personal, Professional, and Work Factors Associated With Australian Clinical Medical Practitioners' Experiences of Workplace Aggression. Annals of Occupational Hygiene 2013 Mar;57(7):898-912. Available from: http://annhyg.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/doi/10.1093/annhyg/met012 PubMed PMID: 23519949. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/met012.
Aydin B, Kartal M, Midik O, Buyukakkus A. Violence Against General Practitioners in Turkey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2009 Jan;24(12):1980-1995. Available from: http://jiv.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/0886260508327703 PubMed PMID: 19150889. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260508327703.
Turhan Ö, Ahmed F, Aslan D, Erişgen G, Çakır B, Şengelen et al. Önlenebilir Bir Sorun: Hekime Yönelik Şiddet Araştırmalardan Yararlanılan Değerlendirmeler ve Çözüm Önerileri. Türk Tabipleri Birliği Yayınları Haziran 2014. (http://www.ttb.org.tr/kutuphane/hekimesiddet.pdf) (Access Date: 08/09/2014)
Tolhurst H, Baker L, Murray G, Bell P, Sutton A, Dean S. Rural general practitioner experience of work-related violence in australia.. Aust J Rural Health 2003 Oct;11(5):231-236. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/occupationalhealth.html PubMed PMID: 14641220.
Carmi-Iluz T, Peleg R, Freud T, Shvartzman P. Verbal and physical violence towards hospital- and community-based physicians in the Negev: an observational study.. BMC Health Serv Res 2005;5(1):54. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/5/54 PubMed PMID: 16102174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-5-54.
Çamcı O, Kutlu Y. Kocaeli’nde sağlık çalışanlarına yönelik işyeri şiddetinin belirlenmesi. Psikiyatri Hemşireliği Dergisi. Psikiyatri Hemşireliği Dergisi 2011;2(1):9-16. Available from: http://www.journalagent.com/phd/pdfs/PHD_2_1_9_16.pdf
Gökçe T, Dündar C. Samsun Ruh ve Sinir Hastalıkları Hastanesi’nde çalışan hekim ve hemşirelerde şiddete maruziyet sıklığı ve kaygı düzeylerine etkisi. İnönü Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi 2008;15(1):25-8.
Atik D. Sağlık çalışanlarına yönelik şiddet olgusunun bir devlet hastanesi örneğinde incelenmesi. NWSA-Medical Sciences. NWSA 2013;8(2):1-15. Available from: http://www.newwsa.com/makale.asp?id=1B0035 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12739/NWSA.2013.8.2.1B0035.
Kitaneh M, Hamdan M. Workplace violence against physicians and nurses in Palestinian public hospitals: a cross-sectional study. BMC Health Serv Res 2012;12(1):469. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/12/469 PubMed PMID: 23256893. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-12-469.
Wu S, Lin S, Li H, Chai W, Zhang Q, Wu Y, et al. A Study on Workplace Violence and Its Effect on Quality of Life Among Medical Professionals In China. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health 2014;69(2):81-88. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19338244.2012.732124 PubMed PMID: 24205959. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19338244.2012.732124.
The Bulletin of Legal Medicine is an open access scientific journal. Open access means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. The Journal and content of this website is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.
The Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) allows users to copy, distribute and transmit an article, adapt the article and make commercial use of the article. The CC BY license permits commercial and non-commercial re-use of an open access article, as long as the author is properly attributed.
The Bulletin of Legal Medicine requires the author as the rights holder to sign and submit the journal's agreement form prior to acceptance. The authors retain copyright of their work and grant the Association for its publication. This ensures both that The Journal has the right to publish the article and that the author has confirmed various things including that it is their original work and that it is based on valid research.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
*Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
*Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
*Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.